Litigation, Personal Injury

The Albatross Of False Accusation: Calabar Metropolis In Issue

ABSTRACT

The administration of criminal justice system has been applauded for ensuring that the civil rights of citizens are protected. Our criminal justice system is accusatorial and not inquisitorial, thus creating the enabling avenue for allegations to be ventilated and proved beyond reasonable doubt. Therefore, a complainant must lay all relevant facts before a competent Court of jurisdiction to decide on the merit of the same. The issue of false accusation/allegation has been topical and a bane on the duties of law enforcement agencies in the course of investigation and prosecution of complaints. False accusations/allegations should be vehemently condemned, vanquished in the deepest pit of hell, and never allowed to raise its ugly head in our criminal justice system. Recently, the disturbing trend in Calabar, Cross River State has been about false accusations/allegations in respect of private parts snatching of citizens, resulting in upheaval, ruckus, and brouhaha within the populace. Therefore, this vista, albeit brief, is an exposition of the legal implications, and moral and societal effects of false accusation/allegation. It recognises that false allegation/accusation is defamatory, but dwells more on our criminal laws. The discussion explores the Administration of Criminal Justice Act, and other relevant laws pertaining to the subject matter, and why the same should be abhorred, rejected, and rebuked in all ramifications.

INTRODUCTION

False accusation/allegation is not just frustrating but goes far to demean the person of another. It breeds public condemnation, contempt, and rejection of the victim by casting aspersions on the innocent victim who knows nothing about the whole event. False accusation may be propelled by presuming something wrongly, or in most cases, by jealousy and hatred of the person of another. It is devilish, not just a crime, but also a sin before God and man. Even where a person hurts you, accusing that person falsely is paying evil for evil, it is dishonorable, disrespectful, and insightful. But for the strong persons out there, hear me clear and bold, “a clear conscience laughs at false accusations.”

False Accusation is not the best approach to any form of resentment, it might hunt you back, today or tomorrow, remember; “Karma is a bitch,” it respects no man, and pardon none. As I said, false accusation is not just a crime, it is a sin, and various religion frowns at same.

In Exodus 20:16, the Bible says, “You must not testify falsely against your neighbor,” and “You must not pass along false rumors. You must not cooperate with evil people by lying on the witness stand. (Exodus 23:1). In Deuteronomy 5:20, the Bible admonishes that, “you must not give dishonest testimony against your neighbor. And I am led by the spirit to bring to your awareness that, “Do not contend with a man for no reason, when he has done you no harm.( Proverbs 3:30 ).

In the same vein, Sunan Abī Dāwūd,[i] echoed, “Whosoever makes an accusation against a Muslim to disgrace him, Allah Almighty will stop him on the Bridge of Hell until he is punished in accordance with what he uttered.” Again, “Even before the feet of a false witness move, Allah Almighty makes the Fire necessary for him.”(Sunan Ibn Mājah, vol. 3, p. 123, ḥadīth  2,273).[ii]

Let me ride you through the wheels of a short tale. The beloved Prophet صَلَّى الـلّٰـهُ عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِه (peace be unto him) once asked the Companions عَـلَيْهِمُ الرِّضْوَانْ, “Do you know who the impoverished person is?” The noble Companions replied, “The impoverished one from among us is the one who neither has dirham nor wealth.” The beloved Prophet صَلَّى الـلّٰـهُ عَلَيْهِ وَاٰلِهٖ وَسَلَّم (peace  be unto him) responded thus:

“The impoverished person from my nation is the one who will come forth on the Day of Judgement with salah, fasts, and zakat but he will have cursed someone, made an accusation against another, stolen the wealth of someone else, spilled the blood of another person, and struck someone. So, they will all be given a part of his deeds. If his deeds finish before the rights over him are fulfilled, their sins will be transferred to him. Then he will be cast into the Fire.[iii]

Off religion, Arthur Miller, in his The Crucible: A Play in Four Acts, once said; If she is innocent! Why do you never wonder if Parris be innocent, or Abigail? Is the accuser always holy now? Were they born this morning as clean as God’s fingers? I’ll tell you what’s walking Salem—vengeance is walking Salem. We are what we always were in Salem, but now the little crazy children are jangling the keys of the kingdom, and common vengeance writes the law!

Marcus Tulluis Cicero was pungent when he said, “As fire when thrown into water us cooled down and put out, so also a false accusation when brought against a man of the purest and holiest character, boils over and is at once displayed, and vanquishes and threats of heaven and sea, himself standing unmoved.”[iv] And as lawyers, we should bear in mind that, the cap rank rule forbids refusal of cases, but the same rules frown at acceptance of vexatious, scandalous, and unscrupulous litigations. I was not surprised when Penny Mordaunt exposed: “We’ve seen unscrupulous legal firms racking legal aid bills for fabricated accusations. And we’ve seen attempts by them to pursue cases that stand no chance of a conviction, putting those accused through hell.”[v] Please, may we be guided in this very noble profession.

False accusations should never be a recourse in all our dealings. Let’s look at the law.

KNOW YE THE LAW AND BE IGNORANT NO MORE

The popular aphorism that, ignorance of the law is not an excuse,[vi] is important in running the legal machinery of every society. It implies that every person is presumed to know the law,[vii] as there can be no excuse whatsoever. The only excuse is ignorance of facts,[viii] presumably because the law acknowledges that human beings are not omnipresent nay omnipotent. Therefore, in other to understand the kernel of this discuss, we shall blaze through the substantive and adjectival laws pertaining to the subject matter.

THE CRIMINAL CODE ACT

The Criminal Code Act applicable in the Southern States makes copious provisions for false accusation in cases of conspiracy,[ix] making false statements to public officers with intent, and publication of defamatory matter.[x] For purposes of clarity, we shall produce the section verbatim as literatim and make some commentaries thereto.

Section 125. Conspiracy to bring false accusation.

Any person who conspires with another to charge any person or cause any person to be charged with any offence, whether alleged to have been committed in Nigeria or elsewhere, knowing that such person is innocent of the alleged offence or not believing him to be guilty of the alleged offence, is guilty of a felony.  

If the offence is such that a person convicted of it is liable to be sentenced to death or to imprisonment for life, the offender is liable to imprisonment for life.  

If the offence is such that a person convicted of it is liable to be sentenced to imprisonment, but for a term less than life, the offender is liable to imprisonment for fourteen years.  

In any other case, the offender is liable to imprisonment for seven years. The offender cannot be arrested without a warrant.  

Comments: The section is clear on its face that any person that causes anybody to be charged for a criminal offence that he knows to be innocent or lacks belief in his guilt is guilty of an offence. This is so whether or not the person was charged in Nigeria or elsewhere. The punishment of the victim is the determinant factor of the punishment of the offender as stated above. The code went ahead to make a little provision on the procedure by providing that the offender cannot be arrested without a warrant of arrest.

Section 125A. Making false statements to public officers with intent

(1) Any individual who gives any information that he knows or believes to be false to any person employed in the public service with the intention of causing such person‐  

(a)   to do or omit to do anything which such person ought not to do or ought not to omit to do if the true facts concerning the information given were known to such person; or  

(b)   to exercise or use his lawful powers as a person employed in the public service to the injury or annoyance of any other person,  is guilty of an offence and liable to imprisonment for one year.  

(2) A prosecution for an offence under this section of this Code shall not be instituted‐  

(a)   without the consent of a superior police officer; or  

(b)   where in any division an administrative officer has been duly appointed to have charge of the police therein under the provisions of subsection (1) of section 7 of the Police Act,  without the consent of that administrative officer.

(2) A prosecution for an offence under this section of this Code shall not be instituted‐  

(a)   without the consent of a superior police officer; or  

(b)   where in any division an administrative officer has been duly appointed to have charge of the police therein under the provisions of subsection (1) of section 7 of the Police Act, without the consent of that administrative officer.

Comments: The section deals with persons who give false information to persons in authority that would lead to doing or omitting to do an act which would have been done or not have been done, but for the information, or causes injury to the person of another, the giver of such information is culpable. The section lays emphasis on public servants. The section further provides that the action cannot be instituted without the consent of a superior police officer. However, it is doubtful whether the consent of a superior police officer is still sacrosanct following the enactment of the Administration of Criminal Justice Act, 2015.

Section 375. Publication of defamatory matter  

Subject to the provisions of this Chapter, any person who publishes any defamatory matter, is guilty of a misdemeanor and is liable to imprisonment for one year; and any person who publishes any defamatory matter knowing it to be false, is liable to imprisonment for two years.

Comments: Recall that we noted earlier that false accusation is also defamatory in nature, but our discussion is not centered on defamation because that would form another entire issue bearing in mind publications of fake news, etc, which has international flavours in instruments, treaties, protocols, etc. However, it is can comfortably be submitted that a false accusation is defamatory in itself, because it may be in written or oral (libel or slander). The punishments are crystal on the face of the provision above.

THE PENAL CODE ACT

Assuming but not conceding that our is based on a Northern state, Part II of the Penal Code applicable in the Northern States deals with Criminal acts and in Chapter 22, makes provision for False statement and accusation substantially.[xi] Let’s blaze through.[xii]

Section 222. False accusation

A penalty of a fine or imprisonment for a term not exceeding 3 years shall be applied to any person who by providing false information to the courts, police or another public authority, by fabricating evidence, or by other conduct creates false grounds for criminal liability, and thus causes a person to be charged or convicted.

Comments: This section prescribes a punishment of 3 years for persons who due to their false information make another person to incur criminal liability by being charged or convicted. It means the victim need not be convicted, charging the victim alone suffices.

Section 223. Aggravated false accusation

An aggravated false accusation is punishable by imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years. In determining whether the accusation is aggravated, weight shall be given to

a.         the consequences or potential consequences of the accusation,

b.        the nature and content of the accusation, and

c.         the other circumstances of the violation.

Comments: This section prescribes 10 years imprisonment as punishment where the consequences or potential consequences, nature and content, or other circumstances of the false accusation results are aggravated. In other words, where the accusation results in aggravated punishment to the victim, the punishment of the offender becomes aggravated too. This is more so even if the consequences did not occur but are only potential.

Section 224. Unfounded accusation

A penalty of a fine or imprisonment for a term not exceeding 1 year shall be applied to any person who by providing false information to the courts, the prosecuting authority or another public authority accuses a person of a criminal act without reasonable cause for suspicion.

Comments: where the information only results in the accusation of the victim of an offence by the court, prosecuting or public authority, the offender is culpable.

Section 225. Accusation of a fictitious criminal act

A penalty of a fine or imprisonment for a term not exceeding 1 year shall be applied to any person who

a.        reports a criminal act that has not been committed to the courts, the prosecuting authority or another public authority, or

b.        raises suspicion that a criminal act has been committed when it has not.

Comments: where without verification the offender reports a criminal act to the court or an authority, the offender is culpable for an offence.

Section 226.Duty to provide information about a wrongful indictment or conviction

A penalty of a fine or imprisonment for a term not exceeding 1 year shall be applied to any person who fails to provide information about circumstances substantiating the innocence of a person indicted or convicted of a criminal act punishable by imprisonment for a term of more than 1 year. The duty to provide information applies regardless of any duty of confidentiality.

The penalties pursuant to the first paragraph do not apply to any person who could not tell the truth without exposing himself or herself or any of his or her next-of-kin or an innocent person to prosecution, risk of significant loss of social standing, or other significant loss of welfare.

Comments: The uniqueness of the Penal Code cannot be overemphasized. Where a person reserves information that would have established the innocence of a victim, the person is culpable for an offence, this is so regardless of any duty of confidentiality. The necessity to give the information outweighs any confidentiality of not giving the same. However, where the disposition would expose the person or a third party to prosecution or damage of reputation, the section would not apply.

THE ADMINISTRATION OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE ACT, 2015

The ACJA, 2015 which is a merger of both the former Criminal Procedure Act and Criminal Procedure Code applicable in the Southern and Northern States respectively, makes provisions for false accusation. It should be noted that the provisions of section 323 of the ACJA, 2015, is equivalent to the provisions of section 256 and 371 of the former Criminal Procedure Act and Criminal Procedure Code, applicable in the Southern and Northern States respectively. The provisions of section 323 of the ACJA, 2015, are also equivalent to the provisions of section 319 of the ACJA, Cross River State, 2016. For purposes of scholarship, after a replication of the section in extension, comments would be made therewith.

Section 323. (1) Where a person causes the arrest, or arrest and charge of a defendant or defendants and it appears to the court that there was no sufficient ground for causing the arrest, or that the accusation is false, vexatious, or frivolous, it may for reason recorded, order the person to pay reasonable compensation to the defendant or defendants arrested and charged.

(2) The court may, in default of payment of such compensation or any part of it, award a term of imprisonment against the person against whom the order was made, for any term not exceeding the term prescribed in respect of a like sum in the scale of imprisonment set out in this Act or the court may sentence the person to Community Service in accordance with section 462 of this Act.

(3) Subject to the provisions of the Constitution relating to appeals, a person against whom an order for payment of compensation is made under this section may appeal against the order as if he had been convicted after trial by the court that issued the order.

Comments: The section provides for compensation to a defendant who is arrested or charged on a vexatious, frivolous, and false accusation by the offender. The issue is, how the compensation of the victim should be calculated where the person is not charged but merely arrested. In this regard, it is submitted that the award of compensation would be guided by the provisions of Chapter IV dealing with fundamental human rights and its procedure.[xiii] The objective of the section is to reduce the multiplicity of trials by allowing the victim to get compensated without necessarily instituting a civil action for malicious prosecution.

The point must be established that it the duty of all citizens to report the commission of an offence to law enforcement agencies, thus, a citizen should not be held culpable for performing his civic duty.[xiv] A citizen can only be held culpable where the report is borne out of malice or where the police are misled and where the police are influenced to prosecute over trump-up charges. See Fajemirokun v. Commercial Bank Nig. Ltd (2009) 5 NWLR (Pt. 1135) 588; Okafor v. Abumofuani v. (2016) 12 NWLR (Pt. 1525) 117; Balogun v. Amubikahun (1989) 3 NWLR (Pt. 107) 18 at 26.

Where the above is established, the Court can award reasonable compensation to put the victim back in the position as possible, as he would have been but not for the false information which is tortuous.[xv] Also note that payment of compensation should not be awarded to serve as a deterrent for the future commission of offence.[xvi]

Accordingly, sub-section 2 of section 323 of the ACJA, 2015, provides that the trial Court may, in the event of any default, award a term of imprisonment against such complainant for any term not exceeding the term prescribed in respect of like sum in the scale of imprisonment set out under the Act, where an order of compensation is made in favor of the defendant against the nominal complainant. The Court can award a prison term where compensation is not paid. The prison term should not exceed the scale of imprisonment set out under section 425 and the Fourth Schedule of the Act. Community service may also be ordered in pursuance to section 462 of the Act.[xvii] It should be noted that the provision of section 323(2) is an exception to the rule that a person cannot be sentenced to prison unless he is charged and tried by the Court.

PRIVATE GENITAL SNATCHING IN CALABAR: MATTERS ARISING

The disturbing trend in Calabar over the past few weeks has been about the male private genital snatching. The importance of the reproductive system cannot be overemphasized at this point. While we condemn such actions which are related to rituals – diabolism in totalism, we must be cautious about how we allow mobs to lynch persons that are suspected penis snatchers. We are not in the 13th century, we are now in the 21st century where things are subject to forensics and technological confirmations. Is it right to lynch a man over an allegation that has not been proven by due medical modalities? How many cases of penis snatching have been duly confirmed and established so far?. Before you lynch that man who may be innocent of the allegation, have you really confirmed? What if a mob kills an innocent man out of false allegations? All these have been the unsettled issues in the Calabar metropolis that have prompted so many reactions from citizens, journalists, public analysts, and even the government.

In the light of the above, we shall examine some trending and un-trending news, to ascertain the position from an empirical review.

THE UNNAMED NAVAL OFFICER’S MISSING PENIS

A few days ago, Vanguard newspaper made a report of a naval officer whose name was not given pertaining to his missing penis. The naval officer was said to be manning the entry point into the barracks when a young man, who gave his name as Samuel walked into the barracks and was directed to the sentry point for security scrutiny. “When he got to the sentry point, he was asked whom he was looking for and his mission in the barracks but while he was talking with the sentry officer, the man felt “an electric jolt around his genitals and behold, when he touched the area, his private had gone.”

Following the alarm raised by the naval officer, the young man was accosted and beaten up with instructions to return the missing genital immediately. The alleged genital snatcher did not say if he was going to return the missing organ and did not deny being responsible for the disappearance of the genital.[xviii]

AKAI EFFA, NYANGHASANG COMMUNITY AND EKPO ABASI SAGA

Again, Crossriverwatch.com[xix] reported that the Police arrived at a scene where a mob had gathered to lynch two after one man, unnamed, claimed his penis and testicles disappeared. The incident occurred at the roundabout linking Akai Effa (MCC Road) with the GoodLuck Ebele Jonathan bypass road in Calabar. Witnesses at the scene said when the man felt his penis had disappeared, he immediately raised an alarm and removed his trousers and what he saw left him dismayed. “What he saw was smaller than a grain of rice and there were no testicles too,”

A similar incident at Nyanghasang community of Calabar Municipal led to a Police raid which caused a reprisal by the community. A Police van was damaged and an entertainer, Kandy Umoh was among those arrested. While Mr. Umoh was later released alongside a few others, nearly two dozen residents of the community were arraigned before a Magistrate Court and remanded at the Medium Security Custodial Center in Afokang. A similar incident occurred at night in Ekpo Abasi junction close to the gate of the Main Campus of the University of Cross River State.[xx]

REACTIONS BY THE STATE POLICE COMMAND (SCID)

The Cross River state police command has debunked the rumour of the disappearance of some men’s private parts in Calabar. The command’s spokesperson, SP Irene Ugbo who reacted to the claim while parading 13 suspects arrested in the state in August, said they have investigated the matter and found that there is nothing of such.

He said; “I want to say it here that the noise that some persons’ manhood has been disappearing in Calabar is not true. We have investigated the matter and found that there is nothing of such. “We want to warn that people should stop spreading falsehood, especially through social media.”[xxi]

REACTIONS BY THE CROSS RIVER STATE GOVERNMENT

The Government of Cross River State has debunked such claims, warning against peddling falsehood. The Government refuted the claims in a press statement issued on Wednesday in Calabar by the Commissioner for Information Mr. Erasmus Ekpang, stating that after thorough investigation and medical examination, it proved it is false.

H.E Governor Prince Otu directed all segments of security agencies to deal decisively with rumor mongers and those caught would be made to face the full wrath of the law. The governor noted that the Government of Cross River State wishes to inform members of the Public, especially residents of our dear State to disregard the purported news of the loss of male genital organs in the Calabar Metropolis. “This is indeed fake news being peddled from the imagination of the bearers and should be discountenanced in its entirety. “Government wishes to further add that the Cross River State Police Command through the Police Public Relations Officer, SP Irene Ugbo, had named the complainant of the fake news as Mr. Moses Edet Udo while the suspect is Mr. Atim Inyang Jackson. “The Police Command said after a thorough investigation, it was confirmed that the Complainant’s Manhood was intact.[xxii]

QUERY: could the news of the snatching be true, or are the government and law enforcement trying to bury the trend due to reputation issues? On the other hand, if the accusations of penis snatching are false, then why rush to lynch a person without verification?. And if the accusation is established to be false, it baffles me why the mobs suddenly forget about the false accuser who might have degraded and denigrated. What do you think?

ESHU EGBULU JOHN’S ACCUSATION AND KUFRE’S EDET’S CHARGE

On the 19th of September, 2023, a 30-year-old man, Kufre Edet Daniel, was charged with felony and other two count charges over alleged false manhood disappearance alarm.

In a charge sheet obtained by CrossRiverWatch with charge number MC/3126/2023, signed by Edosa Samuel Esq, for the Legal and Prosecution section of the State Criminal Investigation Department (CID) Calabar, the matter is between the Commissioner of Police versus Kufre Edet Daniel.

The defendant Kufre Edet Daniel after pleading not guilty to the three (3) count charges preferred against him was granted a three hundred thousand (N300,000) bail and adjourned to October 10, 2023, for further hearing.

 THE CHARGE SHEET

The Charge Sheet reads: “That you Kufre Edet Daniel ‘M, on the 7th day of September 2023, at Sacred Heart, Lagos Street Calabar, within the Calabar Magisterial District, did conspire with others now at large to commit felony to wit: Assault. And thereby committed an offense punishable under section 516 of the Criminal Code Cap c16 Vol. 3 Laws of Cross River State 2004.[xxiii]

“That you Kufre Edet Daniel ‘M and others now at large, on the 7th day of September 2023, at Sacred Heart, Lagos Street Calabar. within the Calabar district, did assault one Eshu Egbelu John M by beating him with objects. And thereby committed an offense punishable under section 351 of the Criminal Code Cap C.16 Vol. 3 Laws of Cross River State of Nigeria- 2004.

“That you Kufre Edet Daniel M and others now at large on the 7th day of September 2023, at Sacred Heart, Lagos Street Calabar, within the Calabar Magisterial District, did give false information to the Police ASP. Asuquo Edet attached to Atakpa Police Division that one Eshu Egbelu John (male) used magic to take away your penis, the information you know to be false. And thereby committed an offense punishable under section 125A (1)(a)(b) of the Criminal Code Cap C.16 Vol. 3 Laws of Cross River State of Nigeria – 2004.”

The charge of Kufre should caution the standby mobs in Cross River State who are ready to devour their fellow citizens without any proof whatsoever on the allegation. Assuming but not conceding that Kufre is tried and found guilty, of false accusation on Eshu Egbelu John, would it not be confirmed that Karma is indeed a bitch?.

MR ANIETI UDOM’S ACCUSATION

Three students accused Anieti Udom of snatching their penis. Mr Anieti was almost burnt alive but for the intervention of the Police who were even stoned by the angry mobs. At the end of the investigation, it was discovered that the accusation was false. The three students were taken to the State CID for arraignment on a 4-count charge. If not for the intervention of the Comr. Emmanuel Michael, the State Executive Chairman of the National Association of Nigerian Students (NANS), those students would have been arraigned for false accusation. Is this not enough to take caution?

RECOMMENDATION

In order to prevent any further cases of false allegation, the following recommendations are suggested to be acted upon:

1. SINCERE AND TRUE ACCUSATION: Citizens should endeavor to be faithful, sincere, and truthful in making allegations of missing private parts. Allegations should not just be made out of malice, jealousy, or hatred. I have already given us a religious sermon on why is it bad to falsely accuse a person irrespective of anything that may have transpired.

2. MEDICAL OPINION: before any allegation of missing private part is made, the victim should be subject to a medical test in a government hospital. On this, I agree with popular journalist and prisoner of conscience, Agba Jalingo, “Anytime there is an allegation of a snatched dick, it is not the job of a street mob or online mob or preacher or girlfriend or wife or relative of the victim, or even the victim himself, to give us confirmation. Methinks that the people certified to confirm or dispel such claims are government agencies and health practitioners, who will conduct tests and determine, whether the organ was working and the size prior to the incident, whether it stopped working during or immediately after the incident, and whether it started working after the incident. This hasn’t happened in any of these Calabar incidents.[xxiv]

3. REDUCE PHYSICAL CONTACTS: Prevention is better than cure, to avoid the repercussions noted above, it is better to reduce physical contact like handshakes and hugs with unknown persons. This would cushion the events that can give rise to accusations.

4. LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES: at any point where a person perceives a miss of his private parts, the first point of contact should be the Police. It is not uncommon that upon discovery, the victim raises alarm drawing public attention, but the best approach is for one or two of the persons to quickly report to the nearest police station for proper investigation. After all, I have noted above that a citizen cannot be arrested for performing his/her civic duties, save for exceptions.

5. GENERAL PUBLIC SENSITIZATION: the government of Cross River State has taken a proactive step by weighing into this ugly trend to ascertain the truthfulness of the same, and the Governor have restarted that the accusations are false alarm, which should be jettisoned by the public. While I applaud the government, the government should embark on street sensitization on the repercussions noted above.

CONCLUSION

This vista began by holding a sermon on why false accusation is not just a crime, but also a sin.  The causes of false accusation and why it should not be an option for any resentment whatsoever has also been examined. We took time to analyze some cases of missing private parts, the reactions of angry mobs, investigations of the police, and even the reactions of the government and media outlets. Now, the danger of making false allegations is that, the maker becomes the biggest looser at the long run. A community reading of the Criminal Code Act, Penal Code Act, and the Administration of Criminal Justice Act, 2015, depending on the jurisdiction, would reveal that the maker of false accusation often ends up in a mess, and that may be his albatross. Therefore, there is need for synergy between the people, law enforcement agencies and government.


[i] at vol. 4, p. 355, ḥadīth 4,883

[ii] Accusation Quotes.<https://www.brainyquote.com/topics/accusation-quotes?__cf_chl_tk=5PDQ25h9dFjNkhpKX9yesaWn2dlfAjrAluQ0NpdQUNs-1695234786-0-gaNycGzNEjs>accessed 24th September, 2023.

[iii] Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, p. 1,069, ḥadīth 6,579.

[iv] Ibid

[v] Ibid

[vi] Ignorantia Juris Non Excusat

[vii] Including the laws passed yesterday by the National or States Houses Assembly

[viii] Ignorantia Facti Excusat

[ix] That is where two or more persons conspires to commit the act of false accusation.

[x] Criminal Code Act

[xi] https://lovdata.no/dokument/NLE/lov/2005-05-20-28/KAPITTEL_2-7#%C2%A7222.>accessed 24th September, 2023.

[xii] Penal Code Act

[xiii] Compensation would be provided on that basis.

[xiv] Nwadinobi v. Botu (2009) 9 NWLR (Pt. 672) 220, SPDC (Nig.) Ltd v. Olarewaju (2002) 16 NWLR (Pt. 792) 220, Adeyemi v. Akintola (2004) 12 NWLR (Pt. 887) 290.

[xv] Nwankwo v. Okereke (2013) LPELR-21952 (CA)

[xvi] Emirates Airline v. Ngonadi (2003) LPELR-22053 (CA).

[xvii] Adoga v. FRN (2019) LPELR-46931 (CA)

[xviii] Ibid

[xix] Police intervenes as man loses penis testicle in Calabar.<https://crossriverwatch.com/2023/09/breaking-police-intervene-as-man-loses-penis-testicles-in-calabar/> accessed 24th September, 2023.

[xx] Ibid

[xxi] Police debunks rumors of men’s private part disappearaance in Calabar.<https://talkofnaija.com/police-debunk-rumour-of-mens-private-parts-disappearance-in-calabar/> accessed 24th September, 2023.

[xxii]No manhood snatching in Calabar  Cross River State Government debunk, warn against fake news.<https://crossriverwatch.com/2023/09/no-manhood-snatching-in-calabar-cross-river-government-debunks-warn-against-false-alarm/>accessed 24th September, 2023.

[xxiii] Police charge man of felony over alleged false manhood disappearance in Calabar.<https://crossriverwatch.com/2023/09/police-charge-man-of-felony-over-alleged-false-manhood-disappearance-in-calabar/> accessed 24th September, 2023.

[xxiv] Before You Join The Calabar Dick Hunters Mobs<https://crossriverwatch.com/2023/09/before-you-join-the-calabar-dick-hunters-mob-by-agba-jalingo> accessed 24th September, 2023.

*mbangconfidence714@gmail.com

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About Mbang Confidence

Mbang Confidence is an Associate in the Mike Ozekhome’s Chambers. He graduated from the Nigerian Law School, Kano Campus, where he was designated as the Orator of the Year, 2022. He is a member of the International Human Rights Protection Service, (IHRPS) Nigeria, and has served as Special Adviser to the President on Public Affairs, currently Special Adviser on Youth Affairs. He is a recipient of an Award by the Centre for Socio-Legal Studies (CSLS), on a Young Lawyers Training on ACJA, organised by Prof Yemi Akinseye George SAN. He is a member of the Niger Delta Youth Parliament (NDYP) where he currently serves as Chairman of Rules and Procedures, he was the former Executive Chairman of the National Association of Nigerian Students (NANS) Cross River State Axis. He has a major interest in Constitutional law and Human Rights. He is a prolific writer and activist.